Enologist: The American and South African spelling of Oenologist, one who studies wine and winemaking.
Enology: The American and South African spelling of Oenology, the study of wine and winemaking.
Fermentation: The conversion of sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide by yeast. Many of the flavors of wine are created during this process.
Filtration: Passage of wine through cellulose pads, diatomaceous earth or membranes to remove suspended solids, yeast or malolactic bacteria. Sweet wines must be filtered to remove yeast and prevent re-fermentation in the bottle.
Fining: The traditional method of clarifying wine. Insoluble substances bind with wine components and precipitate to reduce tannin or remove unstable proteins.
Fruiting Wire: The wire closest to the fruiting zone of the vine.
Fruiting zone: The vine training or trellis system used in our vineyards designates an area 6-8 inches in height, parallel to the ground and close to the fruiting wire where the fruit will hang.
Graft: To splice a varietal vine to the rootstock of another type, usually one resistant to particular pests or diseases.
Gravity-flow: Winemakers prefer to rely on the natural force of gravity in the winemaking process to avoid the use of pumping. For example, in the process of racking, the undesirable solids in the wine (lees) fall to the bottom of the tank by force of gravity. The clear wine is siphoned off of the lees into an empty container.
Hermaphrodite: Self-pollinating plants, such as wine grape vines, containing both male stamens and female ovaries.
Inoculation: The introduction of a special yeast culture, or any other organism, into the pressed grape juice.
Lees: Sediment occurring during winemaking or bottle aging.
Loam: A soil containing a mixture of clay, silt and sand that is best for the growth of most plants. Loam is not necessarily ideal for viticulture, as it can encourage excessive growth.
Malolactic Fermentation: The bacterial conversion of the crisper, apple-type malic acid to the softer, milk-type lactic acid in wine. Also called ML or secondary fermentation, this acid conversion yields wines with increased complexity and softer acidity.
Marl: A crumbly combination of limestone and clay that may be added to deficient soils. Marl also occurs naturally in some French and German wine regions. The finest Cote d’Or wines are grown on marl.
Mouthfeel: The in-mouth impressions of wine when wine tasting, especially the tactile sensations such as “heat” from high alcohol content or “heaviness” or body due to the viscosity from high alcohol and residual sugar in the wine.
Must: The skins, seeds and juice of crushed berries; may also contain whole berries or whole clusters. Red wines are fermented as must; white wines are pressed and fermented as juice.