Remontage: The process of circulating the liquid in the fermentation tank during red wine fermentation. This aerates the wine, prevents drying on the top, (the cap), and encourages extraction of color and tannins into the wine.
Rootstock: The root system of the grapevine to which a fruiting vine of any desired variety, such as Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, etc., can be grafted.
Schist: A large group of rocks that can be split into thin layers, as shale or slate can be. There are schists in the Douro Valley of northern Portugal, which is a controlled appellation.
Scion: A cutting used in grafting, containing a bud of the desired vine.
Second Crop: Fruit that matures after the first crop has been picked; the clusters are usually smaller and the shoots weaker.
Shoot: The current season's stem growth that bears leaves and buds.
Skin contact: In wine-making, leaving the grape skins in contact with the juice or wine for a period of time is used to extract flavor and color from grape skins into the grape juice or wine.
Stable: When wine is in a state in which it will not develop negative characteristics in the bottle, due, for example, to re-fermentation, premature browning or protein haze.
Sulfites: Sulfur-based compounds used to protect wine from oxidation and bacterial activity.
Sulfur Dioxide: Traditionally used to protect wine from oxidation and microbial activity during aging.
Sur Lie: Translated "aging on the lees," and often referred to as "yeast contact." Wine is aged in the barrel with the yeast retained, rather than being clarified before aging. Aging on the lees increases the complexity and creaminess of the wine.