Tartrate Crystals: Tartaric acid, the primary acid in grapes, forms tiny crystals when chilled. These crystals adhere to the cork or form sediment in the bottle, and are not considered a defect.
Terroir: Describes all the influences on the flavors in the wine that come from where the vines grow, especially soil, climate, slope, the aspect of the slope. There is no exact translation in English, but 'terroir' is an important concept in the expression of the origin of wine.
Toasting: Heating the inside of a barrel during its construction to caramelize the flavors. This impacts the flavor and aromatic characteristics of the wine during barrel aging.
Topping: During barrel aging, some water and alcohol evaporate, concentrating the wine slightly and creating an airspace in the barrel. To prevent the harmful effects of oxygen contact with the wine, the barrel is topped-up periodically with the same wine from another container.
Trellis: The wires and stakes that support the vine.
Unfiltered: Wine that has not gone through a filtering process to clarify it.
Varietal Character: The character typical of a specific grape variety.
Veraison: The stage when grapes begin to soften and gain color.
Viticulture: The study of grape growing.
Yeast Autolysis: The breakdown of yeast during aging on the lees, in which compounds are released that heighten the sensory qualities of the wine and increase its complexity.